Running cold in the cold - Kawasaki Versys Forum
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post #1 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-19-2020, 09:23 PM Thread Starter
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Running cold in the cold

I have a 2011 Kawasaki Versys 650 with a Thermo-bob installed (as it should be) in the lower rad hose. It had a 195F / 91C Stant Superstat thermostat installed (p/n 45829). I have been riding in cold spring temps, around freezing. Iíve found the performance and fuel economy are both severely lacking. As a result, I installed an engine temperature gauge, with the sending unit installed in the upper rad hose T-fitting, to see what is going on.

Iíve discovered that while idling, the bike warms up fairly quickly, stabilizes at 90C once the thermostat begins opening, and will eventually get to 103C before the rad fan runs and the temp drops to 95C or so. Exactly as one would expect.

However, on the road, the engine temps quickly fall to 40 to 50C, depending on ambient temp. If I stop and idle, the engine warms up until I begin moving again. If I pull in the clutch and coast with the engine idling, the temp will increase a couple of degrees.

When idling and warming up, Iíve noticed that the top of the rad will begin to warm long before the thermostat should open. There must be flow through the thermostat even when it should be closed. I obviously suspected a bad thermostat, so I installed another spare Stant thermostat (again 195F/91C but without the bleed hole) to no avail. Well, the bike may have been running a degree or 2 warmer, but still silly cold.

At this time, Iím thinking that the thermostat is being forced open by the water pump. Either sucked open, or pushed open by pressure. Either way, there is enough flow through the rad to excessively cool the engine at cruising and highway speeds. Iíve inspected the thermostat and believe that this could happen due to the fact that the thermostat is installed in reverse of how it was designed to operate. The coolant flow is in the opposite direction and sucks/pushes it open rather than closed. Yes, the thermostatís spring should keep it closed, but my repeated experience suggests otherwise.

Is there another thermostat, other than the Stant Superstat, that could be recommended for the Thermo-Bob? Is the bypass flow not enough? I donít believe that I could install a larger fitting in the upper rad hose T-fitting, but havenít measured to be certain. Iím reluctant to just put cardboard in front of the rad...

Thanks for any suggestions,
Dave

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post #2 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-19-2020, 10:31 PM
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Originally Posted by 16VGTIDave View Post
I have a 2011 Kawasaki Versys 650 with a Thermo-bob installed (as it should be) in the lower rad hose. It had a 195F / 91C Stant Superstat thermostat installed (p/n 45829). I have been riding in cold spring temps, around freezing. I’ve found the performance and fuel economy are both severely lacking. As a result, I installed an engine temperature gauge, with the sending unit installed in the upper rad hose T-fitting, to see what is going on.

I’ve discovered that while idling, the bike warms up fairly quickly, stabilizes at 90C once the thermostat begins opening, and will eventually get to 103C before the rad fan runs and the temp drops to 95C or so. Exactly as one would expect.

However, on the road, the engine temps quickly fall to 40 to 50C, depending on ambient temp. If I stop and idle, the engine warms up until I begin moving again. If I pull in the clutch and coast with the engine idling, the temp will increase a couple of degrees.

When idling and warming up, I’ve noticed that the top of the rad will begin to warm long before the thermostat should open. There must be flow through the thermostat even when it should be closed. I obviously suspected a bad thermostat, so I installed another spare Stant thermostat (again 195F/91C but without the bleed hole) to no avail. Well, the bike may have been running a degree or 2 warmer, but still silly cold.

At this time, I’m thinking that the thermostat is being forced open by the water pump. Either sucked open, or pushed open by pressure. Either way, there is enough flow through the rad to excessively cool the engine at cruising and highway speeds. I’ve inspected the thermostat and believe that this could happen due to the fact that the thermostat is installed in reverse of how it was designed to operate. The coolant flow is in the opposite direction and sucks/pushes it open rather than closed. Yes, the thermostat’s spring should keep it closed, but my repeated experience suggests otherwise.

Is there another thermostat, other than the Stant Superstat, that could be recommended for the Thermo-Bob? Is the bypass flow not enough? I don’t believe that I could install a larger fitting in the upper rad hose T-fitting, but haven’t measured to be certain. I’m reluctant to just put cardboard in front of the rad...

Thanks for any suggestions,
Dave
I run 190 all the time at 80 KM/HR at or below 3"C . Just went out and looked. I have a new 195 for the ThermoBob, that will be too hot for you but fine for me. I am running the #4 for snow bikes, located on the discharge of the engine.
Here is my bypass temp. gauge. It is a actual capillary inserted into a T fitting, at the return side to the water pump. So the first to get water flow is the bypass, there will always be water flow through the bypass, so the lowest temperature is at the bypass provided everything is OK. Being my ThermoBob is at the discharge it is 10' higher.
If you are running the original T stat from ThermoBob, you will get stratification, but the temperature should remain stable. If anything I would suspect you have a water pump problem . The bypass line is engineered for the T Bob, larger would create more problems, my line is 3/8, any larger and you will be running hot all summer. I sold my original ThermoBob. I wonder if the stat is sticking open. Real quick way is two pots of water on the stove, one at 95'C one at 20'C or less . Watch the stat on the heat cycle and also on the cool cycle, a bad stat will operate jerky, possibly stay partially open even at 5'C.
After reading your post again, the one I have is OEM , no bleed hole. And trust me, the water pump isn't capable of opening the stat from pressure. Which way have you inserted the stat? I can't see it installed wrong, your engine would have overheated. The side with the 195 should be closest to the incoming bypass line.



OEM stat and TBob


195'C Tbob and OEM
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post #3 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-19-2020, 10:34 PM
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Okay, how cold is 'cold'? What ambient temperatures are you riding in? Maybe the thermostat is allowing coolant flow around its housing.
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post #4 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-20-2020, 08:17 AM
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Thermo-Bob

I went to his site, the T stat I have fits both the #3 & #4 , he says;
"
Get a spare thermostat or a different temperature one for the future. These are the only consumables in the Thermo-Bob 3 and Thermo-Bob 4. 90įC is standard in the Ninja and KLR650, 82įC (180įF) is standard in the Versys 650 and all 4-stroke snowbike kits, and 55įC (131įF) is standard in all 2-stroke snowbike kits."


Be aware what I said originally was correct, my #4 is on the discharge side or upper rad hose side, the glycol coming out is roughly 10'F hotter. So if you ran a #3 on the return side lower rad hose at 82'C , the glycol coming out of the upper rad hose would be roughly 90'C to maintain the same engine temperature.

Some may think my #4 is a bad idea, in actual fact, all the mixing takes place within the engine, that 3/8 line has excellent flow, don't ask for specifics , I try and forget disasters, but trust me, real good flow. I will explain briefly, as the engine warms up, the warmed fluid passes over the Tstat and eventually the stat starts to open, this allows a small amount of fluid to go through the rad, if it is at O'C , expect that stat to close down slightly as the first pass of fluid through the bike. Eventually what will happen is a equalization, the energy put into the engine at 6000 RPM will reflect on the flow through the rad, drop to 1500 RPM and the stat will already have closed down.

So looking at a exploded view on the Watt Man site, it shows a large O ring, I don't remember where this is, but if it was against the stat and fell out, that would explain the erratic behavior and probably both stats are fine. Somehow fluid is going around the stat within that housing.



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post #5 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-20-2020, 02:52 PM Thread Starter
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Thanks for the replies guys!

Cold riding for me is -5C.

I have the ďThermo-Bob OriginalĒ and it is installed in the lower rad hose. Iíve been running a 195F / 91C thermostat for a while without issue and donít want to debate this unless it is over beers! ;^)

Iíve also been in touch with Bill (Designer of Thermo-Bob) and he has suggested replacing the thermostat with one that has had a shim installed under the spring to increase the preload. If that doesnít work, he suggested increasing the size of the bypass hose and fittings.

Now, to find a thermostat on a Friday afternoon...

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post #6 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-22-2020, 12:03 PM Thread Starter
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Update: I tested one of the thermostats I had, and as expected it operates correctly, so I installed it. I then changed the bypass hose fittings to 1/2Ē from 3/8Ē. It wasnít easy to find space to route the 1/2Ē hose.

A test ride this morning at -3C had the engine running cold, 45C when around 110 kph/5000 rpm. The temp went up slightly when I lowered the speed/rpm. When I got back from my ride, the rad was slightly warm to touch when idling, and got hot at 90C on the gauge. This still has me thinking that the thermostat is being forced open.

Iím going to try another new thermostat when I can get one, and will attempt to make something to block most of the air flow through the rad this afternoon. There has to be a way to keep heat in the motor...

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post #7 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-22-2020, 05:03 PM
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As mentioned, are you missing an o-ring for your thermostat mounting? Is your thermostat not properly sealed in its housing, thus allowing coolant bypass around it?
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post #8 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-22-2020, 06:36 PM Thread Starter
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Nothing is missing. When I installed the thermostat I tried to blow from the rad hose connection and couldnít get much more than a hiss of air past the thermostat. Sealing up pretty well - until the engine is revved up...

I have made a plastic shield for the rad to block the air flow, in the hope that I can keep some heat in the engine until I can resolve this properly.

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post #9 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-22-2020, 07:10 PM
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Nothing is missing. When I installed the thermostat I tried to blow from the rad hose connection and couldnít get much more than a hiss of air past the thermostat. Sealing up pretty well - until the engine is revved up...

I have made a plastic shield for the rad to block the air flow, in the hope that I can keep some heat in the engine until I can resolve this properly.
Have you checked your rad pressure cap ? Just went out and looked, your T Bob is between the lower rad hose and the water pump, the bypass line comes from the discharge side of the motor before the upper rad. A increase in flow through the bypass line will reduce the volume of water cooled, however my question about the rad cap, well eventually that pump needs water from somewhere. Yes tired, been getting the bike ready.
So my tired mind is saying that coolant flowing through the T stat at say 60'F should have closed that stat down to the point that you have barely any flow, unloess the hot coolant in the bypass line is hitting the area driving the stat, telling it is hotter than actual, as I said Stratification. My mind , I would have put in a small ball valve in the bypass line, allowing me to restrict flow , Never close this 100%, theoretically the over temp should shut the motor down, provided there is fluid present. I am not saying the stat is being forced open by the pump, I just don't believe the impeller is capable of producing the pressure needed. Also realize this is now a parallel system, much shorter path to the intake of the pump by way of the bypass line.



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post #10 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-22-2020, 07:37 PM
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I've always used a cold front (radiator cover) to ride in colder temps. Even cars and trucks which already have a radiator bypass need them, especially with a small and bare aluminum engine... Try covering about 2/3 ~ 3/4 of your radiator to start, and see how well it works.

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post #11 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-23-2020, 06:32 AM
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Excellent Posts

Well I learned something yesterday, why , even if the pump put out 80 PSI , how my stat couldn't be forced open.

https://www.kawasakiversys.com/forum...o-install.html


This photo says it all, the hose going out the bottom is going to the upper rad hose, the direction of travel is against the spring when going above set point, so it needs to oppose the water pressure as well to open. In this situation I am controlling the water temperature out of the motor, assumed to be 10'F hotter than the water temperature desired ( standard is 180'F for the Versys)going into the motor.
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post #12 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-23-2020, 06:50 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by invader View Post
I've always used a cold front (radiator cover) to ride in colder temps. Even cars and trucks which already have a radiator bypass need them, especially with a small and bare aluminum engine... Try covering about 2/3 ~ 3/4 of your radiator to start, and see how well it works.
I've learned to do the same thing on the Versys-X 300 in the winter months. This bike also runs too cold at temperatures below 10 degrees. By taping off part of the radiator, the engine heats up to proper operating temperatures..
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post #13 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-23-2020, 05:59 PM Thread Starter
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Rode to work this morning, -1C and wet snow falling. Had the rad completely covered. With about a 2cm air gap between the rad itself and the cover. Even at highway speeds (faster than I should have been going by 50%) coolant temp never exceeded 100C. When I got off the highway and stopped at a light, the temp climbed to 103C and the cooling fan cycled and dropped the temp to 94C. As soon as I was moving the temp fell to 89C on city streets.

Before leaving work, I trimmed the rad cover to expose the top 4 rows on the rad. It took longer for the engine to warm up to around 85C in town. Highway was low 80ís riding spiritedly.

Also, I got a message back from Bill. Based on my previous update, he now believes that the thermostat IS being forced open by coolant pressure. NOT cooling system pressure, but the head pressure created by the water pump. His suggestion is to switch to a different Thermo-Bob with a smaller thermostat. Since Tuesday is my last day of work for at least 2 weeks (government mandated layoff due to pandemic), I canít justify any expense at this time. Iím going to see if I can modify a thermostat so it canít be pushed open by the coolant.

More updates as they develop...

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post #14 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-23-2020, 06:56 PM
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post #15 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-24-2020, 03:28 AM
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How is your radiator bypass so restrictive, to the point that coolant flow pressure opens the thermostat, and even a Stant SuperStat?

Why is your radiator bypass not bypassing coolant freely as it should with your ThermoBob setup?

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post #16 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-24-2020, 06:41 AM Thread Starter
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Good question. Here are the details:
Bypass: 1/2Ē coolant hose (new, no sharp bends). 1/2Ē barbed fittings, the restriction.
Bypass coolant flow: 2x 90 degree turns
Upper and lower rad hoses: 3/4Ē
Water pump output: greater than expected.
Thermostat: coolant flow in reverse of design.


Increasing the size of the bypass has allowed the thermostat to almost work at lower rpm. Above 4000 rpm it is still pushed open.

The way the Thermo-Bob is designed and the design of the thermostat are contradictory. Most people never experience this as they donít ride in cold weather AND they donít have a coolant temp gauge. I do.

Also, the thermostat is easily pushed open about 2mm. Try it and see. I have an idea on how to resolve this. Iím taking a thermostat in to work and going to have one of my guys TIG the shaft from the wax capsule to itís frame. That should eliminate this issue and may be the resolution Iím looking for.
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post #17 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-24-2020, 07:40 AM
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Thanks For Posting

First the above posts put some doubt in my mind, as it has been several years running the #4 for snow bikes. One thing I never considered was water pressure forcing open the stat, I would more believe that the bypass line is providing enough hot water to allow the wax cartridge to stay open. I keep mentioning stratification. The best way to describe that is when you have a hot and cold water tap, you adjust how much cold water gets mixed to give you just the right amount of heat, using your finger, you can run it through the water stream, you will find cold and hot water in that stream, the further away you go the less the stratification.

I have a brass T with a temperature gauge measuring the temperature of the water coming out of the engine. This is what I get , doing 100 KM/HR at 0 to 3'C , the riding I do is never less than 60 KM and usually is 350 to 400 KM. At those temperatures, that motor is almost air cooled. There have been a few times where I had to pull into a Tims and warm up, even with heated gear, so my legs getting as close to the motor to keep warm.That gauge is rock solid, it shows water at 190'F , that isn't the engine temperature that is the water coming out of the motor. my fuel mileage changes very little between 0'C and 28'C, the exception is doing low speed driving , stop and go in below 6'C weather, the air temp. sensor enriches the fuel, once I reach a sustained speed, the oxygen sensor kicks in, at least that is what was explained to me. My mileage seems to reflect that.



The before #4 T Bob nightmare:





This photo says it all, if the stat Dave has is actually being forced open, I just realized that would be impossible with my set up, that hose is the upper rad hose, only one way to install the stat.Any water pressure assists the spring.



the small one is my #4 , the larger one is for the original T Bob




Much older photo as my power outlet is changed



I used the drain plug and essentially drained the overflow tank, I got about 2 ounces out at the stat

This was after putting it together


This is during a heat cycle, notice the air bubbles top left


And after it cooled down, finished. Look closely below the overflow tank, you will see a coiled what appears to be choke cable / spring--That is my capillary cable coiled up, I used a oversize T to have enough depth for the sensor in the bypass line
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post #18 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-24-2020, 08:09 AM
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Originally Posted by 16VGTIDave View Post
Good question. Here are the details:
Bypass: 1/2” coolant hose (new, no sharp bends). 1/2” barbed fittings, the restriction.
Bypass coolant flow: 2x 90 degree turns
Upper and lower rad hoses: 3/4”
Water pump output: greater than expected.
Thermostat: coolant flow in reverse of design.


Increasing the size of the bypass has allowed the thermostat to almost work at lower rpm. Above 4000 rpm it is still pushed open.

The way the Thermo-Bob is designed and the design of the thermostat are contradictory. Most people never experience this as they don’t ride in cold weather AND they don’t have a coolant temp gauge. I do.

Also, the thermostat is easily pushed open about 2mm. Try it and see. I have an idea on how to resolve this. I’m taking a thermostat in to work and going to have one of my guys TIG the shaft from the wax capsule to it’s frame. That should eliminate this issue and may be the resolution I’m looking for.

Clever, I noticed that pin being crimped.

One point though, the original cooling on the Versys uses the water temperature exiting the motor . The number #4 T Bob is designed for snow bikes, it would be in operation on the Versys as i was the test dummy, unfortunately Bill felt that he would be open to a lawsuit if someone failed to properly bleed out the air. I had no choice in placing the T Bob because of the plastic fairings. I have looked at it for the 3rd time, it works perfectly, it is impossible to not have water flow if you have the pump primed. Air will get trapped at the high point, however those air bubbles will travel with the flow, the next obstruction it gets bled out. If I had done a video. I introduced at least 2 ounces of air at my highest point , the T Bob, it took one heat cycle to remove it. I had flow during the whole time.
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post #19 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-24-2020, 09:45 AM
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Dam Brain Kicked In

Skip the Red Unless You got nothing better to do:
So over 35 years i dealt with water cooled electrical equipment, primarily inverters for foundries. Really high energy, capable of vaporizing 1/4 by 4 inch copper buss, and yes even the copper buss was water cooled.
So the words water pressure and water flow are related, however you can have pressure and no or low flow. All crytical devices had elmwood temperature sensors after them on the return side of the water circuit. In my early years I would have repeat failures on some older equipment, primarily what I call now , "toy" inverters 125KW ( 125 HP roughly). I would have a SCR fail or a parallel diode fail, yes on the 125 KW about $1000 and $400. Combine my charge out fee and the down time, this became first a annoyance and then a embarrassment. My parents gave me a name that is not easily forgotten, so when things went South $#@* don't send _______ again, this is getting expensive.
It took me time , what I found was the hose length was engineered that 15 feet of 1/2 inch low conductivity hose and 15 Microsiemen water is equal to 1 million ohms. It took me months to find the why and another 3 months of waiting so I could re-hose the entire cabinet during summer shut down. What happened is the assemblers didn't follow the drawings, especially around the SCR / Parallel diodes, what was to be 15 feet was 3 feet, what was to be 20 feet in some cases was 4 feet. Electrolysis had taken place, ate away at some hose barbs and deposited on others. What should have been 5 gallons per minute was around 3 gallons. So a very hot day, we are running below the sensor for the SCR, they stop the inverter to measure the molten metal temperature. Then start it and run full power to raise maybe 20'C, that sudden full power was enough for the magic smoke to escape, eventually the circuit would trip the sensor, digging into it, I started cutting the hose, the very instant I found the deposit, I knew the why. I have installed roughly 50 miles of 1/2 inch non conductive hose in my lifetime.


Painting a picture here, my #4 T Bob and the original T Bob and last how the Versys was originally controlling engine temperature.

Starting with #4 T Bob, cold start flow is through the engine , through the T Bob housing and back to the water pump through a 3/8 bypass line. That wax cartridge is flooded with the engine glycol coming out of the motor. Next as the engine heats up and we approach 190'F , the stat starts to open, some heated glycol enters the rad , that water is cooled, & depending on air temperature it, comes into the engine , mixing with the bypass line hot water = giving a average of the two temperatures.
If I am at idle , the combined rad and bypass water will affect the engine temperature and in short order stability will occur. If I suddenly accelerate and maintain that energy input, that heat transfer within the engine is almost instantaneous , that heated water travels roughly 8 inches to reach the #4, that increased energy causes that stat to start opening to full open, again depending on air temp it will eventually stabilize . A typical heat exchange is 10'C , that is water going in at 90'C will come out at 80'C at the lower rad hose.
You return to idle, that water pump is moving less water, the energy input is much less, that T stat will probably be fully closed if it is below 10'C outside at idle.

So now the original T Bob, we took the thermostat out of the discharge of the motor, installed a bypass line tapped into the upper rad hose and installed a external thermostat that controls water flow into the water pump on cold start up. What we had before was a small bleed hole in the OEM stat, so if you had a newbie that thought he could just start the bike and crank it immediately, well you might have come close to producing steam inside that motor, because you need the set point temperature and flow to open that stat, look closely at the OEM stat, it is identical to the #4 as to the spring and water pressure assisting the spring.
So we don't do stupid things,we allow the motor to warm up. We have warm , becoming hot water going through the motor , through the bypass line, deflecting off the wax cartridge in the T Bob and returning to the water pump. So let us say, it is at 130'F, you want to get going, you are at 5000 RPM within 5 minutes, you are now producing some very hot water, that stream is going through the bypass line, hitting that wax cartridge and some water is coming through the rad. In this setup, we need to wait until the mixed water travels through the engine to the bypass line and also the effect of the cooled water at the T Bob that has come through the stat. In theory we could have 212 'F water coming through the bypass line and
the water going in at 150'F , depending on flow, we could still have 180'F plus coming through the bypass line . How it could be 100'F or cooler is beyond me. Unless it is like Dave said, the water pump is forcing the T stat open.

What Dave suggests about Tig welding could be very valid, in the location set out by Bill in his original design. I did notice that yesterday. I also looked at the original T stat made for Kawasaki, if you push in the opposite direction, things tend to fall out. It's design was meant to work with the spring not against it.

I think I will skip OEM. If it hadn't been because of the design change on the MK-3 , I would have installed the original T Bob in the same place as everyone else. Because I don't like buying something to replace a perfectly good device, I went at it. The harder I tried, the more frustrated I became. I have been covered in ethylene glycol, it is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin, when I say covered, roughly 100 gallons of 50/50 at 90 PSI when a 2 inch hose blows off, because some idiot at the factory forgot to swedge the fitting and never thought of using a proper 2 inch hose barb fitting. I can laugh about it now, it isn't funny then, blew my glasses off my face, I had glycol running out of my boots. Fortunately they had showers and a emergency eyewash station.
So somewhere on this forum I mentioned I drained my 2015 at least 8 times, probably much more than that, I am one determined SOB , when I get a idea, not much stopping me, at one point I came within minutes of taking my sabre saw and doing some surgery on the damn plastic.Well it has been a few years now with the number 4 T Bob, like the new flash it would take about 2 to 3 times the $$$ of what I paid for it to sell it, and I would have another on order, and it would need to be 3 feet of snow on the ground.

Just send a PM to me later Dave, I can move these posts. For now it seemed like the best temporary location. And if you resolve this, keep the thought of posting some photos along the way. Your action may help 10 other people on this forum. It may also help Bill .
quexpress, SteveJ and 16VGTIDave like this.

Last edited by onewizard; 03-24-2020 at 10:20 AM.
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post #20 of 20 (permalink) Old 03-25-2020, 08:39 PM
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Join Date: Nov 2008
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Engine Temp / Gas mileage

So today 403 KM, it started out sunny, I did a stop in Elmira , got me a summer sausage, lots of hand sanitizer . So within a hours ride, the sun vanished and it was overcast. My guess around 2 to 3'C. I got to my spot, a place used by divers, along Grey Bruce 1, only place with picnic tables. No place to sit down and eat, the derive through may work for cars, not for me.
Anyway, some observations. Warm up about 5 minutes, initial warm up I see about 195F the first time, it then settles down to 180'F. I tested these stats, they open fully around 190, they fully close just below 180'F so a 10 degree differential.
So gas is cheap and there is no traffic once you get above Harriston , the Tim's there looks absolutely weird, just 2 or 3 cars, only drive through. Traffic through is about 10% of normal.
So if I maintain 80 to 90 KM/HR I get roughly 5 to 6 KM per liter better than my average. At 100 plus KM/HR I get about 21 KM per Liter, at 80 KM/HR the computer says 26 to 27 KM per liter. Above 110 Km I get about 19 KM per liter. So I had 327 Km and my low fuel was flashing as I approached Harriston on my way home, I had my grips at 75% and my jacket at 8, overcast and cold with a cross wind until I was about 30 KM from home. I filled up in Harriston, usually the lowest price anywhwere and they have full washrooms open to the public. I filled up with 16 liters at 327 KM, which meant I had 5 liters in the tank. One observation, this is my first time with all LED lighting, I find I can run with high beam on , but chances are pretty good that with the heated jacket and grips going , my voltage may have been 14.0 VDC. The voltage does affect the gas gauge , however my average was 20.43 KM per liter, so theoretically I could have gone 427 KM at the same average speed or gone 527 KM if I stayed around 80 KM/HR.

Keep in mind this was 5 month old stabilized regular gas. Engine bypass temperature was between 180 and 185'F , all the time. So I got both front and rear ABS to fire in a gravel parking lot. I have a half liter left of #4 brake fluid and wanted to flush it a second time after getting the ABS to fire. So the #4 T Bob works great.One other note, I had a short section of 60 KM/HR riding ( less than 5 KM) low throttle and almost coasting, my gas mileage shown was around 28 KM/liter, my bypass temperature never wavered , rock solid at 180'F.
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